Nei shen wai wang, literally “inner sageliness and outer kingliness” means something like “to bring the inner holiness to bear in outside rule”. This maxime, going back to the daoistic philosopher Zhuangzi, describes an ideal for a ruler, who gains the ability to rule in the outer world or just to have an effect on it by perfecting his wisdom and inner virtue.
Nelson Mandela certainly was one of those to whom this applies. A long time of suffering and restriction in prision enabled him to gain an inner strenght that he then could turn outside for great achievements.
Nelson Mandela, 1918 – 2013