In his autobiography, the German science journalist Hoimar von Ditfurth explains his views of evolutionary epistemology. He writes (p. 250):
It is important to become clear about the fact that even the most primitive organism knows something about the world already. Even the protozoa […] possess such knowledge. Of course, on such a primitive level of development, their world view is infinitely more paltry than that of higher animals, not to mention that of human beings. But the little bit they “know” about the world we all share is correct.
He is then following a line of arguments taken from Konrad Lorenz: a paramecium hitting an obstacle will retreat and swim into another direction. It “knows” that it cannot swim into the original direction. It might have a few other bits of knowledge on this level, but not much more.
Ditfurth continues (p. 251):
In comparison with the world view…
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